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Even so, the idea of demanding compensation from a wealthy film actor whose family benefited from slavery resonated with many. Some applauded the reports as a New Year's resolution. Many online pointed to the irony of Cumberbatch's performance as a real-life Louisiana slave owner in the 2013 film "12 Years a Slave."
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On the plantation, the Cumberbatch family owned nearly 300 slaves, according to records from the early 1800s. When slavery was abolished throughout most of the British Empire in 1833, the British government compensated former slave owners for their financial losses.
In 2014, Cumberbatch's connection to slavery resurfaced when Stacey Cumberbatch, a New York City commissioner and granddaughter of Caribbean immigrants, said she was related to the "Sherlock" actor through the slave trade.
Cumberbatch has acted in several films about slavery: first in the 2007 film "Amazing Grace," where he plays former British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, who is sympathetic to slave abolition, and then in 2013 as a Southern plantation owner and slaveholder, William Prince Ford, in "12 Years a Slave," which won the 2014 Oscar for best picture.
Its main goals include formal apologies from European governments, land returned to descendants of formerly enslaved Africans, mental health and education programs for Indigenous populations, and the cancellation of public debt.
Although the CRC is targeting governments and companies, it has recently focused on a British politician, Richard Drax, who in 2017 inherited Drax Hall, a 600-acre estate in Barbados that used enslaved labor. The Draxes also owned a plantation in Jamaica and were instrumental in the establishment of sugar production and slavery in the Americas in the 1700s.
"If the issue cannot be resolved we would take legal action in the international courts," said Barbados lawmaker Trevor Prescod, chairman of Barbados National Task Force on Reparations, part of the Reparations Commission, according to a Guardian report. "The case against the Drax family would be for hundreds of years of slavery, so it's likely any damages would go well beyond the value of the land."
Two-motor application has become a very attractive filed in important field which high performance is permitted to achieve of position, speed, and acceleration. In the elevation axis of telescope control system, two-motor direct drive is proposed to enhance the high performance of tracking control system. Although there are several dominant strengths such as low size of motors and high torsional structural dynamics, the synchronization control of two motors is a very difficult and important. In this paper, a multi-loop control technique base master-slave current control is used to synchronize two motors, including current control loop, speed control loop and position control loop. First, the direct drive function of two motors is modeled. Compared of single motor direct control system, the resonance frequency of two motor control systems is same; while the anti-resonance frequency of two motors control system is 1.414 times than those of sing motor system. Because of rigid coupling for direct drive, the speed of two motor of the system is same, and the synchronization of torque for motors is critical. The current master-slave control technique is effective to synchronize the torque, which the current loop of the master motors is tracked the other slave motor. The speed feedback into the input of current loop of the master motors. The experiments test the performance of the two motors drive system. The random tracking error is 0.0119" for the line trajectory of 0.01/s.
A new mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy is developed for multiple motor control systems, which can guarantee the synchronization performance of multiple motor control systems and reduce complexity of the control structure with the increasing number of motors. The mean deviation coupling synchronization control architecture combining second-order adaptive sliding mode control (SOASMC) approach is proposed, which can improve synchronization control precision of multiple motor control systems and make speed tracking errors, mean speed errors of each motor and speed synchronization errors converge to zero rapidly. The proposed control scheme is robustness to parameter variations and random external disturbances and can alleviate the chattering phenomena. Moreover, an adaptive law is employed to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort. Performance comparisons with master-slave control, relative coupling control, ring coupling control, conventional PI control and SMC are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive comparative results are given to shown the good performance of the proposed control scheme. Copyright 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We present ARDOLORES a custom made motor control system for the DOLORES instrument in use at the TNG telescope. ARDOLORES replaced the original PMAC based motor control system at a fraction of the cost. The whole system is composed by one master Arduino ONE with its Ethernet shield, to handle the communications with the external world through an Ethernet socket, and by one Arduino ONE with its custom motor shield for each axis to be controlled. The communication between the master and slaves Arduinos is made possible through the I2C bus. Also a Java web-service has been written to control the motors from an higher level and provides an external API for the scientific GUI. The system has been working since January 2012 handling the DOLORES motors and has demonstrated to be stable, reliable, and with easy maintenance in both the hardware and the software parts.
A programmable positioning stepper-motor controller, based on the Multibus/IEEE 796 standard interface, has been assembled by use of some intelligent and programmable integrated circuits. This controller, organized as a bus-slave unit, has been planned for local management of up to four stepper motors working simultaneously. The number of steps, the direction of rotation and the step-rate for the positioning of each motor are issued by the bus master microcomputer to the controller which handles all the required operations. Once each positioning has been performed, the controller informs the master by generating a proper bus-vectored interrupt. Displacements in up to 64,000 steps may be programmed with step-rates ranging from 0.1 to 6550 steps/sec. This device, for which only low-cost, high-performance components are required, can be successfully used in a wide range of applications and can be easily extended to control more than four stepper motors.