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Silas Cruz
Silas Cruz

Quake 4 Movie Mp4 Download

A major earthquake occurred Tuesday, January 12, 2010 in the boundary region separating the Caribbean plate and the North America plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression, and accommodates about 20 mm/y slip, with the Caribbean plate moving eastward with respect to the North America plate. The location and magnitude was available via IRIS Seismic Monitor minutes after the earthquake was reported by USGS.

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The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti in 2010 was the strongest to hit the island in over two centuries. The initial earthquake drew thousands of visitors to the IRIS website and a lot of interest in the teachable moment information developed by IRIS Education and Outreach staff.

The Teachable Moment Presentations feature PowerPoint slides created in the first hours after the earthquake with information to use in middle school, high school or college classes. There is an IRIS Earthquake Notice in pdf format and USArray Wave Visualization movie.

Seismologists accessed WILBER to generate station maps, build custom Record Section Plots and access seismic data. The WILBER web page, displayed above, shows the distribution of earthquakes in the first quarter of 2010.

The Transportable Array component of the USArray/EarthScope project is a rolling array of 400 broadband stations deployed on a uniform 70-km grid. This very large aperture array is well suited to visualize seismic waves crossing the contiguous United States. The USArray Ground Motion Visualization (GMV) videos below illustrate how seismic waves from large earthquakes sweep across this array by depicting the recorded wave amplitudes at each seismometer location using colored circles.

Web visits increased substantially in January 2010 due to the interest in the Haiti earthquake. Starting Jan 12th, web traffic jumped over 350% compared with the previous year. Seismic Monitor had the most visitors in IRIS history.

After having located seismic activity on the Earth from human reports (Mallet 1853), instrumental seismology grew rapidly following the first remote observation of a quake from Japan in Potsdam (von Rebeur-Paschwitz 1889) and the first observation of the solid Earth tide with a gravimeter (Schweydar 1914). Subsequently seismology on the Earth was able to rapidly decipher the interior details of our planet. Table 2 provides a comparison between SEIS goals for Mars and some key discoveries made on the Earth in the period from 1850 to 1926 and on the Moon following the Apollo seismometer deployments in the early 1970s. Of course, such early observations always triggered alternative interpretations and multiple controversies before reaching consensus.

The major challenge of InSight SEIS, with its first non-ambiguous detection of marsquakes and solid tides, will be to implement a third planetary seismological success story. The single-station character of the mission will limit its scope compared to the 4-station Lunar passive seismology network (plus a partial fifth station consisting of the Apollo 17 gravimeter, Kawamura et al. 2015) and the current very dense network on Earth. This is among the reasons why InSight has chosen not to target the interpretation of any seismic observations deeper than the core-mantle boundary, likely leaving observation of any possible inner core phases, as made on Earth by Lehmann (1936) and proposed by Weber et al. (2011) for the Moon, a possible goal for future Mars geophysical networks.

We refer the reader to Clinton et al. (2018) for a more detailed discussion on internal seismic activity, Daubar et al. (2018) for impacts and summarize below the key points in term of targeted quake and impacts. Mars is expected to be seismically more active than the Moon, but less active than the Earth, based on the relative geologic histories of the terrestrial planets (Solomon et al. 1991; Oberst 1987; Goins et al. 1981). The total seismic moment release per year is \(\sim 10^21\mbox--10^23\mboxN\,\mboxm/\mboxyr\) on the Earth (Pacheco and Sykes 1992) and \(\sim 10^15\mboxN\,\mboxm/\mboxyr\) on the Moon (Goins et al. 1981). This would suggest a total moment release on Mars to be midway between the Earth and Moon or somewhere between \(10^17\mboxN\,\mboxm/\mboxyr\) and \(10^19\mboxN\,\mboxm/\mboxyr\) (Phillips 1991; Golombek et al. 1992; Golombek 1994, 2002; Knapmeyer et al. 2006; Plesa et al. 2018). An average seismicity could therefore generate per year 2 quakes of moment larger than \(10^17\mboxN\,\mboxm\), 10 quakes with moment larger than \(10^16\mboxN\,\mboxm\) and 50 quakes with moment larger than \(10^15\mboxN\,\mboxm\). This leads us to design SEIS with a performance compatible for the surface wave detection of a quake with moment larger than \(10^16\mboxN\,\mboxm\) every were on the planet and the detection of high signal to noise body waves of the latter if occurring outside the core shadow zone. Although the landing site was mostly chosen with landing safety and long-term operations considerations. Cerberus Fossae is only \(\sim 1500\mboxkm\) to the east-northeast from the InSight landing site and is one of the youngest tectonic features on Mars. It has been interpreted as a long graben system with cumulative offsets of 500 m or more (Vetterlein and Roberts 2010) and it contains boulder trails young enough to be preserved in eolian sediments (Roberts et al. 2012), indicative of large and perhaps very recent marsquakes large enough, if occurring again, to be recorded by the InSight instruments (Taylor et al. 2013).

In this section, we first provide in Sect. 3.2 a general overview and review of the estimate of amplitude of seismic waves on Mars as a function of epicentral distance and seismic moment. In Sect. 0, we discuss the consequences of the single station approach for SEIS performances. We then present the instrument noise requirement and expected environmental noise (Sect. 3.4). Section 3.5 provides then an estimate of the expected number of quake detections and Sect. 3.6 provides an update and short critical review of new or challenging science goals prior to surface seismic operation. This identify new goals of the experiment which in many cases were considered at risk and not listed in the NASA 2012 non-published concept study report.

The analysis of the short period part of the seismic spectrum will be mainly devoted to obtaining information from the P and S waves that pass through the planet. The P-wave arrival time is the most robust measurement on a seismogram but inevitably, the waveforms to be recorded will look quite different from Earth. Except for quakes located close to the station, the seismic signal will be strongly reduced by the scattering in the crust due to the impacting history and by the attenuation of the planet (Lognonné and Johnson 2007, 2015). The importance of attenuation on Mars was originally pointed out by Goins and Lazarewicz (1979) who have shown that the Viking seismometer with a 4 Hz central frequency was unable to detect remote events due to attenuation.

Body waves amplitude spectrum, for a 15 second window, as compared to the Earth Low Noise model (Peterson 1993) and for quakes of Moment \(10^15\mboxN\,\mboxm\) at 45 (left) and 90 (right) of epicentral distance computed with a Gaussian beam method. The two dashed curves are for a shear Qμ of 250 (upper curve) and 175 (lower curve) respectively in blue for P waves and red for S waves. On Earth, these body waves signals would be hidden by the micro-seismic peak. Note nevertheless the strong cutoff of amplitude at a few Hz, which shows that most for distant events amplitude will be recorded below 2 Hz for P body waves and below 1 Hz for S body waves

Global stack of synthetic seismogram envelopes for a magnitude 4 (moment \(10^15\mboxN\,\mboxm\)) quake for two plausible Mars models, calculated using AxiSEM (Nissen-Meyer et al. 2014; van Driel et al. 2015). The seismograms were filtered with a noise-adapted filter suppressing all phases whose spectral power is below the noise level at all periods. In the plot, this corresponds to an amplitude of 0 dB. Note however, that phases with an amplitude of 0 dB can still be detectable, based on their polarization. Depth of the event is 10 km

As noted above, one of the main drivers on the SEIS instrument requirements is associated with the global detection of R3 for \(10^16\mboxN\,\mboxm\) quakes, which are expected to occur at a rate of a few per year to a few tens per year.

seismic amplitudes estimation which indicated that these noise requirements are good enough for SEIS to detect a sufficient number of quakes during the operational life of the lander (1 Mars year \(\sim 1.88\) Earth years).

Detailed analyses have shown that all instrument requirements listed in Table 3 and related to quakes can be fulfilled with the Mars activity as described in Sect. 2.3, noise level as predicted by the instrument noise model of Sect. 3.4 and with seismic waves propagation models from expected structure as described in Sects. 2.2 and 3.2. We provide here only two examples and leave others to Fig. 3, which uses synthetics to capture the signal-to-noise estimation of the different seismic phases of an \(M=10^15\mboxN\,\mboxm\) marsquake seismogram.

More representative tests were done in the frame of the Blind test proposed by Clinton et al. (2017). Analysis of one (earth) year of data of synthetic quakes with the current best estimate of the noise model was performed with the tools of the MarsQuake Service (MQS) as well as those from other test participants. Figure 7 shows the results from MQS, indicating that 7 quakes were detected and located using R1/R2/R3, with additional 27 quakes with only R1. Practically, the detection of R1/R2 only is most of the time rare as R3 can then be detected even in low signal to noise conditions. Over one Martian year, this is comparable to L2-3 and much more than L2-1. In addition, this test was made without pressure decorrelation, which could significantly improve the number of detected Rayleigh waves at long periods.


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